The Martini, gin and vermouth, is probably the most popular and widely consumed cocktail. Its origin is in dispute, but it dates back to about 1862.
The Martini's popularity has waxed and waned, and its recipe has changed considerably over the years.
Going from an original mixture that contained more Vermouth than Gin garnished with a lemon twist, to 2 to 1 gin and vermouth, to a 15 to 1 mixture, and finally straight chilled Gin.
There is also the Vodka Martini.
Standard Martini garnish is an olive, garnish it with a pearl onion and it is called a Gibson.
(See Recipe For 1862 Martini)